Opinion In Reference To
97-6 The described use of appropriated funds violates the gratuities clause. For its expenditure or forbearance to collect, the State must receive something new, worth the money paid or let go, as determined by the appropriate state agency as a fiduciary of public funds.
97-7 The term "capital outlay projects for educational purposes" set forth at Article VIII, Section VI, Paragraph IV(b)(1) of the Georgia Constitution includes school buses and equipment with an extended useful life.
97-5 Parties to a civil action to establish paternity are not entitled to a trial by jury.
97-4 The State Patrol cannot be prevented from carrying out its duties on public roads and highways.

Paper ballots may be used as an alternative to voting machines where ballot questions contemplated by the constitutional amendment authorizing a 1% sales and use tax for educational purposes cannot be made to adhere to the 75-word limitation contained in O.C.G.A. ¿ 21-2-325(b).

97-1 Official Code of Georgia Annotated ¿ 16-10-9 prohibits an individual who is employed as a staff member in the judicial branch of state government or in the General Assembly from being employed as a graduate research, laboratory, or teaching assistant at any unit of the University System of Georgia.
97-2 Notwithstanding the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) interpretation to the contrary, the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) does not authorize another state to object to activities wholly within the geographical boundaries of Georgia. Also, Georgia's participation in the CZMA Program would not constitute consent to waiver of its Eleventh Amendment immunity or consent for other states to assert regulatory jurisdiction within Georgia.
96-26 The use of ultrasound to diagnose pregnancy in animals constitutes the practice of veterinary medicine.
96-25 Questions regarding Pub. L. 104-208, amending the Gun Control Act of 1968, under the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1997.
96-24 Seizure and disposition by law enforcement agencies of stolen property acquired by pawn shops.
96-23 School-age children placed in a facility by the Department of Human Resources or the Department of Children and Youth Services and who remain in that facility for more than sixty days must be provided a free education by the local school system in which the facility is located unless the child is in a Youth Detention Center, confined pursuant to a court sentence or unable to leave the facility.
96-22 Candidates for certification as a peace officer may not carry a weapon while on patrol with a field training officer unless they comply with the mandatory licensing requirements of O.C.G.A. ¿ 16-11-126 through 16-11-129.
96-21 Ultimate Fighting matches that encompass boxing, kick boxing, or contact karate are subject to O.C.G.A. Chapter 31, the rules and regulations developed thereunder, and the authority of the Georgia Boxing Commission.
96-19 The State Board of Education lacks the statutory authority to hire its own staff or to designate Department of Education employees as staff for the Board.
96-20 The vendor disclosure requirement of O.C.G.A. ¿ 45-1-6 does not require disclosure of transactions, such as loans, extensions of credit and deposits, made in the ordinary course of business.
96-18 Official Code of Georgia Annotated ¿ 21-2-76 does not prohibit persons who hold office in political parties from serving as members of county boards of elections or boards of elections and registration as created under O.C.G.A. ¿ 21-2-40.
96-17 Updating of crimes and offenses for which the Georgia Crime Information Center is authorized to collect and file fingerprints.
96-15 Referral of a complaint of possible fraud, waste, or other abuse in the programs of a public employer for investigation is not, in and of itself, a prohibited disclosure of the identity of the complainant; if the investigation determines that the complaint was made with knowledge of its falsity, or with reckless disregard for the possibility that it was false, the complainant may be subject to disciplinary action.
96-16 Under the plain language of O.C.G.A. ¿ 35-8-20.1(a), a newly appointed police chief who assumes his term of employment in a new police agency after December 31, 1992, must take the 60 hours of chief executive training unless the appointed chief has previously completed the training.
96-14 To hold the office of sheriff, even as an interim appointment, an appointee must seek certification as a peace officer as required under O.C.G.A. ¿ 15-16-1(c)(1)(J) or get a waiver as prescribed under the same Code Section.
96-13 The duties of law enforcement officers and emergency medical technicians to facilitate organ donations under O.C.G.A. ¿ 17-6-11(b.1) must be performed harmoniously with the coroner's duty to take charge of the body of a fatally injured individual as required under O.C.G.A. ¿ 45-16-24.
96-12 The authority of the State School Superintendent and the State Board of Education.
96-11 The Georgia Superior Court Clerks' Cooperative Authority may not assume responsibilities from the Secretary of State pertaining to maintaining records of commissioned notaries public.
96-9 Candidates for election to statewide judicial office are not required to file with the Secretary of State the expanded financial disclosure forms outlined in O.C.G.A. ¿ 21-5-50(c).
96-8 An RDC lacks authority to abrogate its duty to be accountable for the nonprofit corporations it is authorized to create.
96-10 This will thank you for your January 2, 1996, appointment of me as a Special Attorney General. You asked us to render an opinion on the applicability of the United States Department of Defense Joint Ethics Regulation ("JER") to National Guard personnel while in a non-mobilized state status. Your request stems, in turn, from a similar request by Adjutant General William P. Bland, Jr.
96-7 Where there is governmental oversight or involvement, a student-run newspaper at a state educational institution is subject to the free speech requirements of the First Amendment and, therefore, may not exclude materials from publication based on their content absent a compelling state interest for doing so.
96-6 Teaching of Creationism in Public Schools.
96-5 Official Code of Georgia Annotated ¿ 16-11-178 prohibits the receipt of a handgun by a person involuntarily hospitalized within the past five (5) years; that period of time is calculated from the person's release from hospitalization. Official Code of Georgia Annotated ¿ 35-3-34(d.1)(2) requires that judges of the probate courts and clerks of the superior courts advise the Bureau of all persons involuntarily hospitalized after March 22, 1995, the date the bill was signed by the Governor.
96-4 The Georgia Ports Authority, as an instrumentality of the State of Georgia, is not bound by a Chatham County ordinance mandating certain environmental reporting requirements to be made to the County.
96-3 Local boards of education are not authorized under current law to contract for health insurance with entities other than the State Personnel Board.
96-2 Existing law does not authorize the use of voter registration applications which contain an applicant's digitized signature; therefore, express authorization by the General Assembly must be obtained before a system which uses such technology may be implemented.
96-1 The prohibition contained in the Georgia Ethics in Government Act against for-hire motor carriers regulated by the Georgia Public Service Commission contributing to political campaigns is still applicable despite the partial preemption provisions contained in the Federal Aviation Administration Authorization Act of 1994.
95-45 The Department of Transportation may give permits to American MAGLEV Technology, Inc., to cross the rights-of-way of state routes which will be traversed by the proposed MAGLEV trail between the Georgia State MARTA station and the parking lot across Capitol Avenue from Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium provided that substantial consideration is received from American MAGLEV for these permits.
95-44 English is the official language of the State of Georgia; therefore, there is no legal mandate for the Department of Public Safety to offer driver's license examinations in any other language.
95-43 The provisions of O.C.G.A. ¿ 44-14-361.5, requiring an "owner" of real property who engages a contractor to perform improvements upon the property to file a "Notice of Commencement" of work, are not applicable to a state authority with regard to construction projects on public property; however, a contractor performing a public works contract for a state authority is required to file a "Notice of Commencement," in accordance with O.C.G.A. ¿ 36-82-104(f).
95-42 The term "immediate family" which appears in the campaign contributions portion of the Ethics in Government Act refers to a candidate's spouse and children.
95-41 Local and independent school systems are authorized to lease school buses to the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games for the purpose of transporting the public to the Olympic venues, provided that all of the cost of the use of the buses as well as any additional insurance costs are paid from funds other than public school funds.
95-40 Within certain parameters and with diligent, good faith supervision of the enterprise, a member of the Board of Directors of the Georgia Housing and Finance Authority acting within the scope of his or her authority in carrying out the Authority's stated powers, may rely upon O.C.G.A. ¿ 50-26-6 for protection from imposition of personal liability.
95-39 The Department of Administrative Services' policy prohibiting commercial advertising on state vehicles prevents the Department of Education from operating a donated Toyota van with the slogan "Another Toyota Vehicle Serving the Community" stenciled on the side.
95-38 A Regional Development Center is not authorized, pursuant to O.C.G.A. ¿ 45-9-21, to pay one of its employee's attorney's fees which were incurred prior to the commencement of a civil, criminal, or quasi-criminal action against the employee arising out of the performance of the employee's duties.
95-37 Updating of crimes and offenses for which the Georgia Crime Information Center is authorized to collect and file identifying data.

The statutory proviso negating a "conflict of interest" situation for Board of Regents' employees who serve on the governing boards of the various private, nonprofit, educational, athletic and research foundations and associations affiliated with University System institutions is both express, and contained in legislation dealing specifically with "conflicts of interests" in government. This specific proviso in public sector legislation is in no way affected, limited or modified by a more recent amendment of Georgia's general corporation code placing certain "conflict of interest" disclosure requirements upon the directors and officers of private non-profit corporations.

95-34 An "approved school" for purposes of tuition equalization grants must have been in existence in Georgia for ten years prior to being eligible to receive grant funds in addition to satisfying other statutory criteria. Further, eligibility also depends upon a school being a baccalaureate degree granting institution on or after July 1, 1995.
95-35 Registration to vote may not be conditioned upon an applicant supplying his race on a registration application, though race may be requested as an optional part of the registration process.
95-33 Companies providing alternative insurance coverage in lieu of workers' compensation insurance may be required to participate in the Workers' Compensation Insurance Plan by a rule properly promulgated under the Administrative Procedure Act.
95-32 The statutory phrase "to procure insurance coverage for participants in its programs," found in O.C.G.A. ¿ 50-12-44, grants the Commission the power to procure insurance only for those actively taking part in the athletic competition, and thus, the Commission has no power to procure insurance for its sponsors.
95-31 Certified financial statements, financial audits and summary statements of nonprofit contractors who seek to contract with and obtain reimbursement through the Office of Planning and Budget based upon the recommendation of the Georgia Council for the Arts must be made available for public inspection.
95-30 The Georgia Housing and Finance Authority's power to continue to make loans pursuant to the United States Department of Agriculture's Farmers Home Administration Intermediary Relending Program until reaching the monetary limit of the existing promissory note is not affected by the "sunset" provision of O.C.G.A. ¿ 50-26-10(i)(2).

The National Guard is a law enforcement agency within the contemplation of O.C.G.A. § 16-13-48.1 and -49(u)(4)(B) and is eligible to share in proceeds of drug-related forfeitures with respect to activities under O.C.G.A. § 38-2-10 or a duly declared emergency.

This opinion has been modified by AG Opinion 2018-2